Smith, T.M., Arora., M., Bharatiya, M., Leonard, N., Jian-xin, Zhao., Austin, C. (in review) Brief communication: Trace element patterns in juvenile wild chimpanzees. Am. J. Biol. Anthropol.

Green, D. Smith, T.M., Olack, G., Williams, I., Colman, A.S., Uno, K. (in review) How teeth record and attenuate seasonal signals. J. Arch. Sci. Preprint

Smith, T.M., Arora, M., Austin, C., Ávila, J.N., Duval, M., Lim, T.T., Piper, P.J., Vaiglova, P., de Vos, J., Williams, I.S., Zhao. J-x., Green, D.R. (2024) Oxygen isotopes in orangutan teeth reveal recent and ancient climate variation. eLife 12: RP90217.

Vaiglova, P., Ávila, J., Buckley, H., Galipaud, J.C., Green, D.R., Halcrow, S., James, H.F., Kinaston, R., Oxenham, M., Paz, V., Simanjukntak, T., Snoeck, C., Trinh, H.H., Williams, I.S., Smith, T.M. (2024) Past rainfall patterns in Southeast Asia revealed by microanalysis of delta-18O values in human teeth. J. Arch. Sci. 162: 105922.


Austin, C., Kumar, P., Carter, E.A., Lee, J., Smith, T.M., Hinde, K., Arora, M., Lay, P.A. (2023) Stress exposure histories revealed by biochemical changes along accentuated lines in teeth. Chemosphere 329: 138673.

Smith, T.M., Arora., M., Bharatiya, M., Dirks, W., Austin, C. (2023) Brief communication: Elemental models of primate nursing and weaning revisited. Am. J. Biol. Anthropol. 180: 216-223.


Green, D.R., Ávila, J.N., Cote, S., Dirks, W., Lee, D., Poulson, C.J., Williams, I.S., Smith, T.M. (2022) Fine-scaled climate variation in equatorial Africa revealed by modern and fossil primate teeth. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 119: e2123366119.

Smith, T.M., Warinner, C. (2022) Developmental, evolutionary, and behavioral perspectives on oral health. In (K. Plomp, C. Roberts, S. Elton, G. Bentley, Eds.) Palaeopathology and Evolutionary Medicine: An Integrated Approach. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp. 95-119.

Smith, T.M., Austin, C., Avila, J.N., Dirks, W., Green, D.R., Williams, I.S., Arora., M (2022) Permanent signatures of birth and nursing initiation are chemically recorded in teeth. J. Arch. Sci. 140: 105564.


Smith, T.M., Cook, L., Dirks, W., Green, D., Austin, C. (2021) Teeth reveal juvenile diet, health and neurotoxicant exposure retrospectively: What biological rhythms and chemical records tell us. BioEssays 43: 2000298.


Gunz, P., Neubauer, S., Falk, D., Tafforeau, P., Le Cabec, A., Smith, T.M., Kimbel, W.H., Spoor, F., Alemseged, Z. (2020) Australopithecus afarensis endocasts suggest ape-like brain organization and prolonged brain growth. Sci. Adv. 6: eaaz4729.

Kelley, J., Schwartz, G.T., Smith, T.M. (2020) Age at first molar emergence in Pan troglodytes verus and variation in the timing of molar emergence among free-living chimpanzees. J. Hum. Evol. 145: 102823.

Papakyrikos, A.P., Arora, M., Austin, C., Boughner, J.C., Capellini, T.D., Dingwall, H.L., Greba, Q., Howland, J.G., Kato, A., Wang, X-P., Smith, T.M. (2020) Biological clocks and incremental growth line formation in dentine. J. Anat. 237: 367–378.


Smith, T.M. (2019) Dental histology. In (Richards, M., Britton, K., Eds.) Archaeological Science: An Introduction. Cambridge University Press, New York, pp. 170-197.

Smith, T.M., Tafforeau, P., Pouech, J., Begun, D.R. (2019) Enamel thickness and dental development in Rudapithecus hungaricus. J. Hum. Evol. 136: 102649.

MacLatchy, L., Rossie, J., Houssaye, A., Olejniczak, A.J.,­­ Smith, T.M. (2019) New hominoid fossils from Moroto II, Uganda and their bearing on the taxonomic and adaptive status of Morotopithecus bishop. J. Hum. Evol. 132: 227-246.


Smith, T.M., Houssaye, A., Kullmer, O., Le Cabec, A., Olejniczak, A.J., Schrenk, F., Vos. J. de, Tafforeau, P. (2018) Disentangling isolated dental remains of Asian Pleistocene hominins and pongines. PLoS ONE 13: e0204737.

Smith, T.M.,* Austin, C.*, Green, D.R.* Joannes-Boyau, R.* Bailey, S., Dumitriu, D., Fallon, S., Grün, R., James, H.F., Moncel, M-H., Williams, I.S., Wood, R., Arora, M. (2018) Wintertime stress, nursing, and lead exposure in Neanderthal children. Sci. Adv. 4: eaau9483. * These authors contributed equally to this work.

Green, D.R., Smith, T.M., Green, G.M., Bidlack, F.B., Tafforeau, P., Colman, A.S. (2018) Quantitative reconstruction of seasonality from stable isotopes in teeth. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 235:482-504.


Green, D.R., Green, G.M., Colman, A.S., Bidlack, F.B., Tafforeau, P., Smith, T.M. (2017) Synchrotron imaging and Markov Chain Monte Carlo reveal tooth mineralization patterns. PLoS ONE 12(10): e0186391.

Westaway, K.E., Louys, J., Due Awe, R., Morwood, M.J., Price, G.J., Zhao, J.-x., Aubert, M., Joannes-Boyau, R., Smith, T.M., Skinner, M.M., Compton, T., Bailey, R.M., van den Bergh, G.D., de Vos, J., Pike, A.W.G, Stringer, C., Saptomo, E.W., Rizal,Y., Zaim, J., Santoso, W.D., Trihascaryo, A., Kinsley, L., Sulistyanto, B. (2017) An early modern human presence in Sumatra 73,000–63,000 years ago. Nature 548: 322-325.

Smith, T.M., Austin, C., Hinde, K., Vogel, E.R., Arora, M. (2017) Cyclical nursing patterns in wild orangutans. Sci. Adv. 3: e1601517.


Smith, T.M. (2016) Dental development in living and fossil orangutans. J. Hum. Evol. 94: 92-105.

Austin, C.*, Smith, T.M.*, Farahani, R.M.Z.*, Hinde, K., Carter, E.A., Lee, J., Lay, P.A., Kennedy, B.J., Sarrafpour, B., Wright, R.J., Wright, R.O., Arora, M. (2016) Uncovering system-specific stress signatures in primate teeth with multimodal imaging. Sci. Rep. 5: 18802; doi: 10.1038/srep18802  These authors contributed equally to this work.


Smith, T.M., Boesch, C. (2015) Developmental defects in the teeth of three wild chimpanzees from the Taï forest. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 157: 556–570.

Machanda, Z., Brazeau, N.F., Bernard, A.B., Donovan, R.M., Papakyrikos, A.M., Wrangham, R., Smith, T.M. (2015) Dental eruption in East African wild chimpanzees. J. Hum. Evol. 82: 137-144.

Smith, T.M.*, Tafforeau, P.*, Le Cabec, A., Bonnin, A., Houssaye, A., Pouech, J., Moggi-Cecchi, J., Manthi, F., Ward, C., Makaremi, M., Menter, C.G. (2015) Dental ontogeny in Pliocene and early Pleistocene hominins. PLOS ONE 10(2): e0118118. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0118118 *These authors contributed equally to this work. Click here for the press release.

Raynal, J.P., Sbihi-Alaoui, F-Z., Mohib, A., El Graoui, M., Lefèvre, D., Texier, J-P., Geraads, D., Smith, T., Tafforeau, P., Zouak, M., Grün, R., Rhodes, E.J., Eggins, S., Daujeard, C., Fernandes, P., Gallotti, R., Hossini, S., Schwarcz, H.P., Queffelec, A., Hublin, J-J. (2015) Nouveaux restes dentaires humains dans la Grotte à Hominidés de la carrière Thomas I à Casablanca (Maroc): contexte et datation directe par ablation laser ICP-MS. In (Akerraz, A., Ettahiri, A.S., Alaoui, M.K., Eds.) Hommage à Joudia Hassar-Benslimane. Institut national des sciences de l’archéologie et du patrimoine, Rabat, pp. 59-71.


Smith, T.M., Reid, D.J., Olejniczak, A.J., Tafforeau, P., Hublin, J.-J., Toussaint, M. (2014) Dental development in and age at death of the Scladina 1-4A juvenile Neanderthal. In (Toussaint, M., Bonjean, D. Eds.) The Scladina I-4A Juvenile Neandertal (Andenne, Belgium) Palaeoanthropology and Context). Études et Recherches Archéologiques de l’ Université de Liège, Liège. pp. 155-166.

Kato, A., Tang, N., Borries C., Papakyrikos, A., Hinde, K., Miller, E., Kunimatsu, Y., Hirasaki, E., Shimizu, D., Smith, T.M. (2014) Intra- and interspecific variation in macaque molar enamel thickness. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 155: 447–459.

Guatelli-Steinberg, D., Stinespring-Harris, A., Reid, D.J., Larsen, C.S., Hutchinson, D.L., Smith, T.M. (2014) Chronology of linear enamel hypoplasia formation in the Krapina Neanderthals. PaleoAnthropol. 2014: 431−445.

Carter, K., Worthington, S., Smith, T.M. (2014) News and views: Non-metric dental traits and hominin phylogeny. J. Hum. Evol. 69:123-128.


Smith, T.M. (2013) Teeth and human life-history evolution. Annu. Rev. Anthropol. 42:191-208.

Austin, C.*, Smith, T.M.*, Bradman, A., Hinde, K., Joannes-Boyau, R., Bishop, D., Hare, D.J., Doble, P., Eskenazi, B., Arora, M. (2013) Barium distributions in teeth reveal early life dietary transitions in primates. Nature. 498:216-219. *These authors contributed equally to this work. Click here for the press release.

Smith, T.M., Alemseged, Z. (2013) Reconstructing hominin life history. Nature Education 4:2.

Smith, T.M., Machanda, Z., Bernard, A.B., Donovan, R.M., Papakyrikos, A.M., Muller, M.N., Wrangham, R. (2013) First molar eruption, weaning, and life history in living wild chimpanzees. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 110:2787-2791. Click here for the press release.


Smith, T.M., Olejniczak, A.J., Zermeno, J.P., Tafforeau, P., Skinner, M.M., Hoffmann, A., Radovčić, J., Toussaint, M., Kruszynski, R., Menter, C., Moggi-Cecchi, J., Glasmacher, U.A., Kullmer, O., Schrenk, F., Stringer, C., Hublin, J-J. (2012) Variation in enamel thickness within the genus Homo. J. Hum. Evol. 62:395-411.

Tafforeau, P., Zermeno, J.P., Smith, T.M. (2012) Tracking cellular-level enamel growth and structure in 4D with synchrotron imaging. J. Hum. Evol. 62:424-428. Click here for the press release.

Smith, T.M., Kupczik, K., Machanda, Z., Skinner, M.M., Zermeno JP. (2012) Enamel thickness in Bornean and Sumatran orangutan dentitions. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol.  147:417-426.

Hublin J.J., Bailey S., Olejniczak A., Smith, T., Verna C., Sbihi-Alaoui F.Z., Zouak M. (2012) Dental evidence from the Aterian human populations of Morocco. In (Hublin, J-J., McPherron, S., Eds.) Modern Origins: A North African Perspective. Springer, Dordrecht, pp. 189-204.


Raynal, J.P., Sbihi-Alaoui, F-Z., Mohib, A., El Graoui, M., Lefèvre, D., Texier, J-P., Geraads, D., Hublin, J-J. Smith, T.,Tafforeau, P., Zouak, M., Grün, R., Rhodes, E.J., Eggins, S., Daujeard, C., Fernandes, P., Gallotti, R., Hossini, S. Schwarcz, H.P., Queffelec, A. (2011) Contextes et âge des nouveaux restes dentaires humains  du Pléistocène moyen de la carrière Thomas I à Casablanca (Maroc). Bull. Soc. Préhist. Française.108:645-669.

Smith, T.M., Bacon, A-M., Demeter, F., Kullmer, O., Nguyen, K.T., Vos, J. de, Wei, W., Zermeno, J.P., Zhao, L. (2011) Dental tissue proportions in fossil orangutans from mainland Asia and Indonesia. Hum. Origins Res.1:e1.

Smith, T.M., Reid, D.J., Olejniczak, A.J., Bailey, S., Glantz, M., Viola, B., Hublin, J.-J. (2011) Dental development and age at death of a Middle Paleolithic juvenile hominin from Obi-Rakhmat Grotto, Uzbekistan. In (Condemi, S., Weniger, G.-C., Eds.) Continuity and Discontinuity in the Peopling of Europe:One Hundred Fifty Years of Neanderthal Study. Springer, Dordrecht, pp. 155-163.


Smith, T.M., Tafforeau, P., Reid, D.J., Pouech, J., Lazzari, V., Zermeno, J.P., Guatelli-Steinberg, D., Olejniczak, A.J., Hoffman, A., Radovčić, J., Masrour, M., Toussaint, M., Stringer, C., Hublin, J-J. (2010) Dental evidence for ontogenetic differences between modern humans and Neanderthals. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 107:20923-20928. Click here for the press release.

Feeney, R.N.M., Zermeno, J.P., Reid, D.J., Nakashima, S., Sano, H., Bahar, A., Hublin, J.J., Smith, T.M. (2010) Enamel thickness in Asian human canines and premolars. Anthropol. Sci. 118:191-198.

Lee, J.J-W., Morris, D., Constantino, P.J., Lucas, P.W., Smith, T.M., Lawn, B.R. (2010) Properties of tooth enamel in great apes. Acta Biomaterialia 6:4560-4565.

Raynal, J.P., Sbihi-Alaoui, F-Z., Mohib, A., El Graoui, M., Lefèvre, D., Texier, J-P., Geraads, D., Hublin, J-J. Smith, T., Tafforeau, P., Zouak, M., Grün, R., Rhodes, E.J., Eggins, S., Daujeard, C., Fernandes, P., Gallotti, R., Hossini, S., Queffelec, A. (2010) Hominid Cave at Thomas Quarry I (Casablanca, Morocco): Recent findings and their context. Quatern. Int. 223-224:369-382.

Smith, T.M., Smith, B.H., Reid, D.J., Siedel, H., Vigilant, L., Hublin, J.J., Boesch, C. (2010) Dental development of the Täi Forest chimpanzees revisited. J. Hum. Evol. 58:363-373.

Skinner, M.M., Evans, A., Smith, T., Jernvall, J., Tafforeau, P., Kupczik, K., Olejniczak, A.J., Rosas A., Radovčić, J., Thackeray, J.F., Toussaint, M., Hublin, J-J. (2010) Brief Communication: Contributions of enamel-dentine junction shape and enamel deposition to primate molar crown complexity. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 142:157-163.


Smith, T.M., Reid, D.J. (2009) Temporal nature of periradicular bands (“striae periradicales”) on mammalian tooth roots. In (Koppe, T., Meyer, G., Alt, K.W., Eds.) Comparative Dental Morphology. Karger, Basel, pp. 86-92.

Nielsen-Marsh, C.M., Stegemann, C., Hoffmann, R., Smith, T., Feeney, R., Toussaint, M., Harvati, K., Panagopoulou, E., Hublin, J-J., Richards, M.P. (2009) Extraction and sequencing of human and Neanderthal mature enamel proteins using MALDI-TOF/TOF MS. J. Arch. Sci. 36:1758-1763.

Richards, M., Grimes, V., Smith, C., Smith, T., Harvati, K., Hublin, J.-J., Karkanas, P., Panagopoulou, E. (2009) Response to Nowell and Horstwood.(2009) J. Arch. Sci. 36:1657-1658.

Smith, T.M., Olejniczak, A.J., Kupczik, K., Lazzari, V., Vos, J., Kullmer, O., Schrenk, F., Hublin, J.-J., Jacob, T., Tafforeau, P. (2009) Taxonomic assessment of the Trinil molars using non-destructive 3D structural and developmental analysis. PaleoAnthropol. 2009:117-129.

Smith, T.M., Harvati, K., Olejniczak, A.J., Reid, D.J., Hublin, J.-J., Panagopoulou, E. (2009) Brief Communication: Dental development and enamel thickness in the Lakonis Neanderthal molar. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 138:112-118.


Smith, T.M., Tafforeau, P. (2008) New visions of dental tissue research: tooth development, chemistry, and structure. Evol. Anthropol. 17:213-226.

Hublin, J-.J., Pääbo, S.,  Derevianko, A.P., Doronichev, V.B., Golovanova, L.V., Friess, M., Froment, A., Hoffmann, A., Kachache, N.E.J., Kullmer, O., Lordkipanidze, D., Moncel, M.-H., Potts, R., Radovcic, J., Rak, Y.Z., Richards, M., Méndez, J.R., Rosas, A., Schmauder, M., Schmitz, R.W., Semal, P., Smith, T., Tafuri, M.A., Tattersall, I., Tournepiche, J.-F., Toussaint, M., Vassiliev, S., Vialet, A., White, T., Ziegler, R. (2008). Suggested guidelines for invasive sampling of hominid remains. J. Hum. Evol. 55:756-757.

Olejniczak, A.J., Smith, T.M., Skinner, M.M., Grine, F.E., Feeney, R.N.M., Thackeray, F.J., Hublin, J.-J. (2008) Three-dimensional molar enamel distribution and thickness in Australopithecus and Paranthropus. Biol. Lett. 4:406-410.

Olejniczak, A.J., Smith, T.M., Feeney, R.N.M., Macchiarelli, R., Mazurier, A., Bondioli, L., Rosas, A., Fortea, J., de la Rasilla, M., García-Tabernero, A., Radovčić, J., Skinner, M.M., Toussaint, M., Hublin, J.-J. (2008) Dental tissue proportions and enamel thickness in Neandertal and modern human molars. J. Hum. Evol. 55:12-23.

Smith, T.M., Olejniczak, A.J., Reh, S., Reid, D.J., Hublin, J.-J. (2008) Brief Communication: Enamel thickness trends in the dental arcade of humans and chimpanzees. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 136:237-241.

Richards, M., Harvati, K., Grimes, V., Smith, C., Smith, T., Hublin, J.-J., Karkanas, P., Panagopoulou, E. (2008) Strontium isotope evidence of Neanderthal mobility at the site of Lakonis, Greece using laser-ablation PIMMS. J. Arch. Sci. 35:1251-1256.

Smith, T.M. (2008) Incremental dental development: methods and applications in hominoid evolutionary studies. J. Hum. Evol. 54:205-224.

Smith, T.M., Hublin, J.-J. (2008) Dental tissue studies: 2D and 3D insights into human evolution. J. Hum. Evol. 54:169-172.

Skinner, M.M., Wood, B., Boesch, C., Olejniczak, A.J., Rosas, A., Smith, T.M., Hublin, J.-J. (2008) Dental trait expression at the enamel-dentine junction of lower molars in extant and fossil hominoids. J. Hum. Evol. 54:173-186.

Tafforeau, P.T., Smith, T.M. (2008) Nondestructive imaging of hominoid dental microstructure using phase contrast X-ray synchrotron microtomography. J. Hum. Evol. 54:272-278.

Olejniczak, A.J., Smith, T.M., Wei, W., Potts, R., Ciochon, R., Kullmer, O., Schrenk, F., Hublin, J.-J. (2008) Molar enamel thickness and dentine horn height in Gigantopithecus blacki. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 135:85-91.


Smith, T.M., Toussaint, M., Reid, D.J., Olejniczak, A.J., Hublin, J.-J. (2007) Rapid dental development in a Middle Paleolithic Belgian Neanderthal.  Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 104:20220-20225. Click here to access the supplementary materials.

Smith, T.M., Reid, D.J., Dean, M.C., Olejniczak, A.J., Ferrell, R.J., Martin, L.B. (2007) New perspectives on chimpanzee and human dental development. In (Bailey, S. & Hublin, J.-J., Eds.) Dental Perspectives on Human Evolution: State of the Art Research in Dental Paleoanthropology. Springer, Dordrecht, pp. 177-192.

Olejniczak, A.J., Gilbert, C.C., Grine, F.E., Martin, L.B., Smith, T.M., Ulhaas, L. (2007) Morphology of the enamel-dentine junction in sections of anthropoid primate maxillary molars. J. Hum. Evol. 53:292-301.

Mahoney, P., Smith, T.M., Schwartz, G.T., Dean, C., Kelley, J. (2007) Molar crown formation in the late Miocene Asian hominoids, Sivapithecus parvada and Sivapithecus indicus. J. Hum. Evol. 53:61-68.

Olejniczak, A.J., Tafforeau, P., Smith, T.M., Temming, H., Hublin, J-J. (2007) Technical note: Compatibility of microtomographic imaging systems for dental measurements. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 134:130-134.

Smith, T.M., Tafforeau, P.T., Reid, D.J., Grün, R., Eggins, S., Boutakiout, M., Hublin, J.-J. (2007) Earliest evidence of modern human life history in North African early Homo sapiens. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 104:6128-6133. Click here to access the supplementary material.

Smith, T.M., Reid, D.J., Dean, M.C., Olejniczak, A.J., Martin, L.B. (2007) Molar development in common chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). J. Hum. Evol. 52:201-216.


Smith, T.M., Olejniczak, A.J., Tafforeau, P., Reid, D.J., Grine, F.E., Hublin, J.-J. (2006) Molar crown thickness, volume, and development in South African Middle Stone Age humans. S. Afri. J. Sci. 102:513-517.

Smith, T.M., Olejniczak, A.J., Reid, D.J., Ferrell, R.J., Hublin, J-J. (2006) Modern human molar enamel thickness and enamel-dentine junction shape. Arch. Oral Biol. 51:974-995.

Smith, T.M., Reid, D.J., Sirianni, J.E. (2006) The accuracy of histological assessments of dental development and age at death. J. Anat. 208:125-138.

Smith, T.M. (2006) Experimental determination of the periodicity of incremental features in enamel. J. Anat. 208:99-114.


Smith, T.M. (2005) New evidence for the periodicity of incremental structures in enamel. In (Zadzinska, E., Ed.) Current Trends in Dental Morphology Research. University of Lodz Press, Lodz, pp. 445-456.

Smith, T.M., Olejniczak, A.J., Martin, L.B., Reid, D.J. (2005) Variation in hominoid molar enamel thickness. J. Hum. Evol. 48:575-592.


Smith, T.M., Martin, L.B., Reid, D.J., Bonis, L. Koufos, G.D. (2004) An examination of dental development in Graecopithecus freybergi (= Ouranopithecus macedoniensis). J. Hum. Evol. 46:551-577.

Smith, T.M. (2004) Incremental Development of Primate Dental Enamel. PhD Dissertation. Stony Brook University.


Kelley, J., Smith, T.M. (2003) Age at first molar emergence in early Miocene Afropithecus turkanensis and life-history evolution in the Hominoidea. J. Hum. Evol. 44:307-329.

Smith, T.M., Martin, L.B., Leakey, M.G. (2003) Enamel thickness, microstructure and development in Afropithecus turkanensis. J. Hum. Evol. 44:283-306.